Порнографические дипфейки: следующий трагический акт феномена «порно из мести» и необходимость принятия уголовного закона на федеральном уровне

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21202/1993-047X.14.2020.1.105-141

Ребекка А. Делфино


Полный текст:

PDF

Аннотация


Цель: изучение проблемы порнографических дипфейков – сфальсифицированных фотографий и видероликов с наложением изображений лиц людей, не участвовавших в их съемке, и внесение предложений по ее решению.


Методы: наблюдение, изучение документов, сравнение, анализ, синтез.


Результаты: предлагается на уровне федерального уголовного законодательства Соединенных Штатов Америки решение общенациональной проблемы порнографических дипфейков, поскольку ни один федеральный закон или закон штата в настоящее время не предусматривает ответственности за их создание или распространение.


Научная новизна: впервые рассматривается правовой аспект порнографических дипфейков как феномена современной цифровизации и использования новых методов создания вредоносной для человека виртуальной реальности.


Практическая значимость: предлагается новый федеральный уголовный закон, регулирующий создание и распространение порнографических дипфейков. В этом законе сочетаются компоненты законов ENOUGH и MDFPA и добавлены другие необходимые компоненты с целью поставить заслон порнографическим дипфейкам и защитить их жертвы. Приводятся текст и анализ предлагаемого закона. Результаты исследования могут быть востребованы для учета в последующих научных работах, при совершенствовании законодательства и в правоприменительной деятельности не только Соединенных Штатов Америки, но также Российской Федерации и других стран.


Ключевые слова


порнографический дипфейк; цифровизация; виртуальная реальность; порнографические материалы; аудиозапись; видеозапись; правонарушение; киберпреступность

Литература


Cole S. We Are Truly Fucked: Everyone Is Making AI-Generated Fake Porn Now, VICE: Motherboard, Jan. 24, 2018, available at: https://motherboard.vice.com/en_us/article/bjye8a/reddit-fake-porn-app-daisy-ridley [https://perma.cc/EN85-JSM7].

Dold K. Face-Swapping Porn: How a Creepy Internet Trend Could Threaten Democracy, Rolling Stone, Apr. 17, 2018, available at: https://www.rollingstone.com/culture/features/face-swapping-porn-how-creepy-trend-could-threaten-democracy-w518929 [https://perma.cc/7J2Q-J2QD].

Schwartz O. You Thought Fake News Was Bad?: Deep Fakes Are Where Truth Goes to Die, Guardian, Nov. 12, 2018, available at: https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2018/nov/12/deep-fakes-fake-news-truth [https://perma.cc/2KBB-FDWH].

All Things Considered: Technologies to Create Fake Audio and Video Are Quickly Evolving, NPR, Apr. 2, 2018, available at: https://www.npr.org/2018/04/02/598916380/technologies-to-create-fake-audio-and-video-are-quickly-evolving [https://perma.cc/V5TM-AUVJ].

BuzzFeed (@BuzzFeed), Twitter, Apr. 17, 2018, available at: https://twitter.com/BuzzFeed/status/986257991799222272 [https://perma.cc/6A5J-RBEG].

Bobby Chesney, Citron D. Deep Fakes: A Looming Challenge for Privacy, Democracy, and National Security, Calif. L. Rev., 2019, available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3213954 [https://perma.cc/FQG5-RG3Y].

Blitz M. J. Lies, Line Drawing and (Deep) Fake News, Okla. L. Rev., 2018, Vol. 71, p. 59.

Vincent J. Why We Need a Better Definition of ‘Deepfake’, Verge, May 22, 2018, available at: https://www.theverge.com/2018/5/22/17380306/deepfake-definition-ai-manipulation-fake-news [https://perma.cc/Z2VE-56UV].

Rouse M. Deepfake (Deep Fake AI), Whatis.com, available at: https://whatis.techtarget.com/defmition/deepfake [https://perma.cc/8UEZ-4NNP] (дата обращения: 12.11.2019).

Rise of the Deepfakes, Week, June 9, 2018, available at: http://theweek.com/articles/777592/rise-deepfakes [https://perma.cc/2P9A-DRWF]

Adam Dodge, Johnstone E. Using Fake Video Technology to Perpetuate Intimate Partner Abuse, Without my consent, available at: https://withoutmyconsent.org/perch/resources/2018-04-25deepfakedomesticviolenceadvisory.pdf [https://perma.cc/Q6DS-8G7S] (дата обращения: 12.11.2019).

Roettgers J. ‘DeepFakes’ Will Create Hollywood’s Next Sex Tape Scare, Variety, Feb. 2, 2018, available at: http://variety.com/2018/digital/news/hollywood-sex-tapes-deepfakes-ai-1202685655/ [https://perma.cc/Q4Q7-CM5].

Lee D. Deepfakes Porn Has Serious Consequences, BBC News, Feb. 3, 2018, available at: https://www.bbc.com/news/technology-42912529 [https://perma.cc/R4TY-LJQK]

Jake Widman, Nicol W. What Is Reddit?: A Beginner’s Guide to the Front Page of the Internet, Digital Trends, May 22, 2019, available at: https://www.digitaltrends.com/social-media/what-is-reddit/ [https://perma.cc/6ATF-9FE].

Hawkins D. Reddit Bans ‘Deepfakes,’ Pornography Using the Faces of Celebrities Such as Taylor Swift and Gal Gadot, Wash. Post., Feb. 8, 2018, available at: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/morning-mix/wp/2018/02/08/reddit-bans-deepfakespornography-using-the-faces-of-celebrities-like-taylor-swift-and-gal-gadot/ [https://perma.cc/2TPE-AYBG].

Roose K. Here Come the Fake Videos, Too, N. Y. Times, Mar. 4, 2018, available at: https://www.nytimes.com/2018/03/04/technology/fake-videos-deepfakes.html [https://perma.cc/6QA8-78NL].

Rense S. What Are ‘Deepfakes,’ and Why Are Pornhub and Reddit Banning Them?, Esquire, Feb. 12, 2018, available at: https://www.esquire.com/lifestyle/sex/a17043863/what-are-deepfakes-celebrity-porn/ [https://perma.cc/3QQS-XUCF].

Donovan J. Deepfake Videos Are Getting Scary Good, How Stuff Works, Sept. 5, 2018, available at: https://electronics.howstuffworks.com/future-tech/deepfake-videos-scary-good.htm [https://perma.cc/D6FA-HJA9].

Suwajanakorn S. et al. Synthesizing Obama: Learning Lip Sync from Audio, ACM Transactions on Graphics, July 2017, p. 95:1.

Steinbuch Y. Listen to JFK Speak from Beyond the Grave, N. Y. Post., Mar. 16, 2018, available at: https://nypost.com/2018/03/16/jfks-voice-delivers-speech-he-never-gave-day-of-assassination/ [https: //perma.cc/TJQ9-6AFQ].

Gstalter M. ‘Obama’ Voiced by Jordan Peele in PSA Video Warning About Fake Videos, Hill, Apr. 17, 2018, available at: http://thehill.com/blogs/in-the-know/in-the-know/383525-obama-voiced-by-jordan-peele-in-psa-video-warning-about-fake [https://perma.cc/9F4R-466W].

McCarter R. Idiots on the Internet Are Getting Really Good at Splicing Nic Cage’s Face onto Every Movie, AV Club, Sept. 4, 2018, available at: https://news.avclub.com/idiots-on-the-internet-are-getting-really-good-at-splic-1828799192 [https://perma.cc/5VAP-WQTK].

Cole S. People Are Using AI to Create Fake Porn of Their Friends and Classmates, Vice: Motherboard, Jan. 26, 2018, available at: https://motherboard.vice.com/en_us/article/ev5eba/ai-fake-porn-of-friends-deepfakes [https://perma.cc/8EPJ-GNNA].

Roberts J. J. Fake Porn Videos Are Terrorizing Women. Do We Need a Law to Stop Them?, Fortune, Jan. 15, 2019, available at: http://fortune.com/2019/01/15/deepfakes-law/ [https://perma.cc/TNA3-G7TM].

Franks M. A. Drafting an effective “Revenge porn” law, A Guide for Legislators, 2016, available at: https://www.cybercivilrights.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/Guide-for-Legislators-9.16.pdf [https://perma.cc/W3KB-Q7YQ].

Danielle Keats Citron, Franks M. A. Criminalizing Revenge Porn, Wake Forest L. Rev., 2014, Vol. 49, pp. 345.

Gilden A. Sex, Death, and Intellectual Property, Harv. J. L. & Tech., 2018, Vol. 32, p. 67.

Cole S. Deepfakes Were Created as a Way to Own Women’s Bodies – We Can’t Forget That, Vice: Broadly, June 18, 2018, available at: https://broadly.vice.com/en_us/article/nekqmd/deepfake-pom-origins-sexism-reddit-v25n2 [https://perma.cc/7FJ4-99T8].

Buxton M. The Deep Dark World of Fake Porn, Refinery, available at: https://www.refinery29.com/en-gb/2018/02/190383/deepfakes-ai-assisted-fake-porn [https://perma.cc/6NPX-KKQX] (дата обращения: 07.02.2018).

Farokhmanesh M. Is It Legal to Swap Someone’s Face into Porn Without Consent?, Verge, Jan. 30, 2018, available at: https://www.theverge.com/2018/1/30/16945494/deepfakes-porn-face-swap-legal [https://perma.cc/5HP9-FQM6]

Greenberg A. It’s About to Get Even Easier to Hide on the Dark Web, Wired, Jan. 20, 2017, available at: https://www.wired.com/2017/01/get-even-easier-hide-dark-web/ [https://perma.cc/HKB6-C924]

Spiccia P. The Best Things in Life Are Not Free: Why Immunity Under Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act Should Be Earned and Not Freely Given, Val. U. L. Rev., 2013, Vol. 48, p. 369.

Bridy A. Remediating Social Media: A Layer-Conscious Approach, B.U. J. SCI. & Tech. L., 2018, Vol. 24, p. 193.

Klonick K. The New Governors: The People, Rules, and Processes Governing Online Speech, Harv. L. Rev., 2018, Vol. 131, p. 1598.

Cole S. Targets of Fake Porn Are at the Mercy of Big Platforms, Vice: Motherboard, Feb. 5, 2018.

Patton R. B. Taking the Sting Out of Revenge Porn: Using Criminal Statutes to Safeguard Sexual Autonomy in the Digital Age, Geo. J. Gender & L., 2015, Vol. 16, p. 407.

Gil N. "Deepfake" Porn: The New Way Women Are Being Exploited Online, Refinery29, June 21, 2018, available at: https://www.refinery29.com/en-gb/2018/06/202456/deepfake-pornography [https://perma.cc/J75W-MJJK]

McKay T. Pornhub Says Digitally Generated ‘Deepfakes’ Are Non-Consensual and It Will Remove Them, Gizmodo, Feb. 6, 2018, available at: https://gizmodo.com/pornhub-says-digitally-generated-deepfakes-are-non-cons-1822786071 [https://perma.cc/6EJH- E7HU].

Terms & Conditions, Pornhub, available at: https://www.pornhub.com/information#terms [https://perma.cc/UB7Q-9D78] (дата обращения: 18.05.2018).

Vincent J. Twitter Is Removing Face-Swapped AI Porn from Its Platform, Too, Verge, Feb. 7, 2018, available at: https://www.theverge.com/2018/2/7/16984360/twitter-ban-fake-porn-ai-face-swap [https:// perma.cc/NE6B-HSXL].

Roettgers J. Naughty America Wants to Monetize Deepfake Porn, Variety, Aug. 20, 2018, available at: https://variety.com/2018/digital/news/deepfake-porn-custom-clips-naughty-america-1202910584/ [https://perma.cc/4PLT-BK7V]

Clark B. Pornhub Promised to Ban ‘Deepfakes’ Videos. And It Failed Miserably, TNW, Apr. 18, 2018, available at: https://thenextweb.com/insider/2018/04/19/pornhub-promised-to-ban-deepfakes-videos-and-it-failed-miserably/ [https://perma.cc/GYC8-48AF].

Ellis E. G. People Can Put Your Face on Porn – and the Law Can’t Help You, Wired, Jan. 26, 2018, available at: https://www.wired.com/story/face-swap-porn-legal-limbo/ [https://perma.cc/5VSH-CYRA].

Linkous T. It’s Time for Revenge Porn to Get a Taste of Its Own Medicine: An Argument for the Federal Criminalization of Revenge Porn, Rich. J. L. & Tech., 2014, Vol. 20, p. 14.

Samuel D. Warren, Brandeis L. D. The Right to Privacy, Harv. L. Rev., 1890, Vol. 4, p. 193.

Citron D. K. Law’s Expressive Value in Combating Cyber Gender Harassment, Mich. L. Rev., 2009, Vol. 108, p. 373.

Perritt H. H. Law and the Information Superhighway, New York, 1996.

Jasanoff S. Making Order: Law and Science in Action, The Handbook of Science and Technology Studies, 2008, p. 761.

Chris Meserole, Polyakova A. The West Is Ill-Prepared for the Wave of "Deep Fakes” That Artificial Intelligence Could Unleash, Brookings, May 25, 2018, available at: https://www.brookings.edu/blog/order-from-chaos/2018/05/25/the-west-is-illprepared-for-the-wave-of-deep-fakes-that-artificial-intelligence-could-unleash/ [https://perma.cc/NNL4-9F8D].

Groban M. S. Intimate Partner Cyberstalking – Terrorizing Intimate Partners with 21st Century Technology, U. S. Attorneys’ Bull., May 2016, p. 12.

Brady K. M. Revenge in Modern Times: The Necessity of a Federal Law Criminalizing Revenge Porn, Hastings Women’s L. J., 2017, Vol. 28, p. 3.

Amanda Lenhart et al. Nonconsensual Image Sharing: One in 25 Americans Has Been a Victim of "Revenge Porn”, Data & Soc’yres. Inst., Dec. 13, 2016, available at: https://datasociety.net/pubs/oh/Nonconsensual_Image_Sharing_2016.pdf [https://perma.cc/Q6KG-F5P6].

Sherlock P. Revenge Pornography Victims as Young as 11, Investigation Finds, BBC News, Apr. 27, 2016, available at: https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-36054273 [https://perma.cc/S339-LKSR].

Fay M. The Naked Truth: Insufficient Coverage for Revenge Porn Victims at State Law and the Proposed Federal Legislations to Adequately Redress Them, B. C. L. Rev., 2018, Vol. 59, p. 1839.

Jacobs H. This Is What It Is Like to Be the Victim of Revenge Porn, and Why We Need to Criminalise It, Independent, Feb. 13, 2015, available at: https://www.independent.co.uk/voices/comment/this-is-what-it-is-hke-to-be-the-victim-of-revengeporn-and-why-we-need-to-criminalise-it-10045067.html [https://perma.cc/Y9WV-PW66].

Nelson S. Federal ‘Revenge Porn’ Bill Will Seek to Shrivel Booming Internet Fad, U. S. News & World Rep., Mar. 26, 2014, available at: https://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2014/03/26/federal-revenge-porn-bill-will-seek-to-shrivel-booming-internetfad [https://perma.cc/ 86UZ-LCNQ].

Lahitou J. What Is the ENOUGH Act?: Lawmakers Are Pushing to Criminalize Revenge Porn with a New Bill, Bustle, Nov. 28, 2017, available at: https://www.bustle.com/p/what-is-the-enough-act-lawmakers-are-pushing-to-criminalize-revenge-porn-witha-new-bill-6337236 [https://perma.cc/3ZXU-HXQD].

Roffer J. Nonconsensual Pornography: An Old Crime Updates Its Software, Fordham Intell. Prop. Media & Ent. L. J., 2017, Vol. 27, p. 935.

Carter T. B. Local, State, and Federal Responses to Stalking: Are Anti-Stalking Laws Effective?, Wm. & Mary J. Women & L., 2016, Vol. 22, p. 333.

Wegman A. N. Cyberbullying and California’s Response, U. S. F. L. Rev., 2013, Vol. 47, p. 737.

Christopher B. Can California Crack Down on Deepfakes Without Violating the First Amendment?, Kqed News, July 3, 2019, available at: https://www.kqed.org/news/11758994/can-california-crack-down-on-deepfakes-without-violating-the-firstamendment [https://perma.cc/MA3Q-JJ7V].

Sheeler A. California Is Moving to Ban Deepfakes. What Are They, Anyway?, Sacramento Bee, July 1, 2019, available at: https:// www.sacbee.com/news/politics-government/capitol-alert/article232162032.html [https://perma.cc/Y375-9QTK].

Harris D. Student Article, Deepfakes: False Pornography Is Here and the Law Cannot Protect You, Duke L. & Tech. Rev., 2019, Vol. 17, p. 99.

Kirstan Conley, Fonrouge G. Google Kills Revenge Porn Bill, N. Y. Post, June 21, 2018, available at: https://nypost.com/2018/06/21/new-yorks-revenge-porn-bill-dies-after-11th-hour-campaign-by-google/ [https://perma.cc/8YSF-Z8V3].

Hetherington J. What Happened to New York’s Revenge Porn Bill?, Newsweek, June 21, 2018, available at: https://www.newsweek.com/what-happened-new-yorks-revenge-porn-bill-google-989666 [https://perma.cc/7ZHY-C8JD].

Greene A. The Ill of Misogyny on the Internet: Why Revenge Porn Needs Federal Criminalization, Colo. Tech. L. J., 2017, Vol. 16, p. 175.

Desai S. Smile for the Camera: The Revenge Pornography Dilemma, California’s Approach, and Its Constitutionality, Hastings Const. L. Q., 2015, Vol. 42, p. 443.

Assefa H. Massachusetts Court Says ‘Upskirt’ Photos Are Legal, CNN, Mar. 6, 2014, available at: https://www.cnn.com/2014/03/05/us/massachusetts-upskirt-photography/index.html [https://perma.cc/943Q-R2EA].

Bustamante D. Florida Joins the Fight Against Revenge Porn: Analysis of Florida’s New Anti-Revenge Porn Law, Fiu L. Rev., 2017, Vol. 12, p. 357.

Fox H. Why Revenge Porn Laws May Not Protect Women, Takepart, Dec. 2, 2014, available at: http://www.takepart.com/article/2014/12/02/revenge-porn-protections/ [https://perma.cc/V6ZZ-Z8V4].

Nisttahuz C. Fifty States of Gray: A Comparative Analysis of "Revenge-Porn" Legislation Throughout the United States and Texas’s Relationship Privacy Act, Tex. Tech L. Rev., 2018, Vol. 50, p. 333.

Waddell K. Lawmakers Plunge into "Deepfake” War, Axios, Jan. 31, 2019, available at: https://www.axios.com/deepfakelaws-fb5de200-1bfe-4aaf-9c93-19c0ba16d744.html [https://perma.cc/KRH5-ZRWE].

Kerr O. S. Should Congress Pass a "Deep Fakes" Law?, Volokh Conspiracy, Jan. 31, 2019, available at: https://reason.com/volokh/2019/01/31/should-congress-pass-a-deep-fakes-law [https://perma.cc/6M8U-G7MA]

Sasse B. This New Technology Could Send American Politics into a Tailspin, Wash. Post., Oct. 19, 2018, available at: https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/the-real-scary-news-about-deepfakes/2018/10/19/6238c3ce-d176-11e8-83d6-291fcead2ab1_story.html [https://perma.cc/SL33-27K8].

Hollister S. Scarlett Johansson Slams Deepfakes, Says She Can’t Stop the Internet from Pasting Her Face on Porn, Verge, Dec. 31, 2018, available at: https://www.theverge.com/2018/12/31/18163351/scarlett-johansson-slams-deepfakes-internet-lostcause

[https://perma.cc/SMK2-3H3P].

Bloomberg. How Faking Videos Became Easy – and Why That’s so Scary, Fortune, Sept. 11, 2018, available at: http://fortune.com/2018/09/11/deep-fakes-obama-video/ [https://perma.cc/64MB-JGG9].

Donie O’Sullivan et al. When Seeing Is No Longer Believing: Inside the Pentagon’s Race Against Deepfake Videos, CNN Bus, available at: https://www.cnn.com/interactive/2019/01/business/pentagons-race-against-deepfakes/ [https://perma.cc/6ASDWK3Y] (дата обращения: 12.11.2019).

Robert L. Ullmann, Ferrera D. L. Crime on the Internet, Bos. B. J., Nov./Dec. 1998, p. 4.

Hawley A. E. Taking Spam out of Your Cyberspace Diet: Common Law Applied to Bulk Unsolicited Advertising via Electronic Mail, UMKC L. Rev., 1997, Vol. 66, p. 381.

Petroff A. Google, Microsoft Move to Block Child Porn, CNN Bus., Nov. 18, 2013, available at: https://money.cnn.

com/2013/11/18/technology/google-microsoft-child-porn/index.html [https://perma.cc/6V7F-JFQM].

Burris A. Hell Hath No Fury Like a Woman Porned: Revenge Porn and the Need for a Federal Nonconsensual Pornography Statute, Fla. L. Rev., 2014, Vol. 66, p. 2325.

Danny O’Brien, DiaKayyali. Facing the Challenge of Online Harassment, Electronic Frontier Found, Jan. 8, 2015, available at: https://www.eff.org/deeplinks/2015/01/facing-challenge-online-harassment [https://perma.cc/9994-VK52].

Citron D. K. Hate Crimes in Cyberspace, 2014.

Cole S. Personalized Fake Porn Videos Now for Sale on Reddit, Vice: Motherboard, Feb. 6, 2018, available at: https://motherboard.vice.com/en_us/article/7x799b/selling-ai-generated-fake-porn-is-probably-a-good-way-to-get-sued [https://perma.cc/P5X7-VASJ].

Robert Chesney, Citron D. Deep Fakes: A Looming Crisis for National Security, Democracy, and Privacy?, Lawfareblog, Feb. 21, 2018, available at: https://www.lawfareblog.com/deep-fakes-looming-crisis-national-security-democracy-and-privacy [https://perma.cc/SBJ2-7B3x].

Rebecca A. Delfino, Pornographic Deepfakes: The Case for Federal Criminalization of Revenge Porn’s Next Tragic Act, Fordham L. Rev., 2019, 88, p. 887.



DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21202/1993-047X.14.2020.1.105-141