Неэффективность требования раскрытия информации. Ч. 1–2

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21202/1993-047X.11.2017.2.170-198

Омри Бен-Шахар, Карл Е. Шнайдер


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Аннотация


Цель: разработка концептуальных теоретико-правовых положений и научных рекомендаций по обоснованию неэффективности требования раскрытия информации.


Методы: всеобщий диалектический метод познания, а также основанные на нем общенаучные и частноправовые методы исследования.


Результаты: в статье рассматриваются достоинства и недостатки самого распространенного в современном обществе метода защиты личной автономии: требования обязательного раскрытия информации. Статья состоит из четырех разделов: (1) разносторонний обзор использования требования раскрытия информации в различных формах и обстоятельствах в таких сферах, как защита прав потребителя и заемщика, информированное согласие пациента, формирование контрактов и конституционные права; (2) обзор эмпирической литературы, свидетельствующей о неспособности требования раскрытия информации влиять на степень информированности людей и эффективность их решений; (3) обзор причин неэффективности требования раскрытия информации, в котором особая роль отводится политической динамике, оказывающей влияние на принятие соответствующих законодательных актов, на мотивы, побуждающие обладателей информации исполнять их, а также на способность получателей информации использовать эти акты; и (4) доказательство того, что требование раскрытия информации не только не достигает своих целей, но и приводит к непредвиденным последствиям, которые часто наносят вред тем, кому данное требование должно было служить.


Научная новизна: в статье разработано и введено в научный оборот обоснование неэффективности требования раскрытия информации, доказана неспособность требования раскрытия информации влиять на степень информированности людей и эффективность их решений, а также выявлены непредвиденные последствия, которые могут нанести вред тем, кому требование раскрытия информации должно служить.


Практическая значимость: выводы и положения статьи могут быть использованы в научной, законотворческой и правоприменительной деятельности, учебном процессе образовательных организаций высшего образования.


Ключевые слова


конституционное право; информационное право; гражданское право; раскрытие информации; информационное согласие; защита прав потребителей; защита прав пациента; защита прав заемщика

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21202/1993-047X.11.2017.2.170-198